Carbon has been known since ancient times in the form of soot, charcoal, graphite and diamonds.Ancient cultures did not realize, of course, that these substances were different forms of the same element French scientist Antoine Lavoisier named carbon and he carried out a variety of experiments to reveal its nature.If these layers were stacked upon one other, graphite would be the result. Graphene’s discovery was announced in 2004 by Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim, who used adhesive tape to detach a single layer of atoms from graphite to produce the new allotrope.Atoms of extraterrestrial noble gases helium-3 and argon-36 have been found trapped within buckyballs on Earth.Tennant also proved that when equal weights of charcoal and diamonds were burned, they produced the same amount of carbon dioxide.Although it had been previously attempted without success, in 1955 American scientist Francis Bundy and coworkers at General Electric finally demonstrated that graphite could be transformed into diamond at high temperature and high pressure.A large family of fullerenes exists, starting at C20 and reaching up to C540.
Many allotropes commonly described as amorphous, however, such as glassy carbon, soot, or carbon black usually have enough structure to not be truly amorphous.
Lavoisier noted the overall weight of the jar was unchanged and that when it burned, the diamond had combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
He concluded that diamond and charcoal were made of the same element – carbon.
Diamond’s high thermal conductivity is the origin of the slang term ‘ice.’ At typical room temperatures your body temperature is higher than the room’s – including any large diamonds you may just happen to have lying around.
If you touch any of these diamonds, their high thermal conductivity carries heat away from your skin faster than any other material.